Late fall is a good time to consider nematode sampling. Sampling may be important to perform if lack of vigor or poor growth is observed within an orchard. Samples should be taken once the soil begins to cool in October. For best results, multiple soil samples should be taken, with a minimum of one sample per soil type present in the orchard. If soils are relatively uniform, two to three samples should be made for fields smaller than 60 acres. Five or six samples are needed for for larger uniform fields. A composite of 5-7 different spots within the soil type or field quadrant should be pooled (mixed and combined) as one “sample.” Soil samples should be taken at a depth of 15″-20″ within the rootzone of the tree. Once enough samples have been collected, they should be placed in a properly labeled bag, kept cool and out of the sun, and submitted to a lab to conduct the nematode analysis. Read More
Cross posted from the UC Weed Science blog and originally written for the California Weed Science Society Research Update and News. -Brad
Managing Junglerice in Tree Nut Crops – a summer weed resistant to glyphosate
Marcelo L. Moretti1, Seth Watkins1, Bill Gary2, and Brad Hanson1
1University of California – Davis, CA; 2Mid Valley Ag – Linden, CA
Junglerice, or Echinocloa colona, is a summer grass commonly found in orchards, annual crops, and roadsides of California. This weed germinates in early spring and throughout the summer and can grow and reproduce quickly. Junglerice commonly is identified by purple bands on the leaves. However, in some populations or environmental conditions these stripes are less visible; thus a lack of banding should not be used as a definitive means of identification. In recent years, the feature that makes this summer grass really stand out in California fields is the discovery of glyphosate-resistant populations. Read More
The harvest season is winding down, and in the next few weeks many orchards will be receiving their last irrigations. After the final irrigation of the season, growers should conduct soil sampling to determine any potential issues with sodium, chloride, or boron. These salts are “imported” onto the farm through fertilizers and soil amendments, with the largest amount coming through irrigation water.
There are several videos online that go through the procedure of collecting a soil sample. Here is a link to an article containing this series. When soil sampling for salinity management, varying depths of soil must be collected to determine where the salts have accumulated. Suggested depths are in one foot increments (down to
four five feet), but 18 inch increments may also be used. If dealing with soil infiltration issues, it may be of value to sample the top 6″ to determine if there is a soil imbalance.
In regards to these posts, I have received several good questions that I thought I would share. Read More